axoneme in a sentence
1) axonemes contain at least eight or nine different dynein heavy chains.
2) Other axonemes consist of 6 + 0 or 9 + 0 arrangements of microtubules.
3) The identity of dynein as the motor protein in axonemes is supported by various findings.
4) Middle piece is formed of mitochondiral spiral, nebenkern around the proximal part of axoneme.
axoneme example sentences5) Electron micrograph of two doublet microtubules in a protease-treated axoneme incubated with ATP.
6) For axonemes to participate in movement, they must be stable structures anchored by at least one end.
7) Doublet microtubules, which represent a specialized polymer of tubulin, are found only in the axoneme.
8) The active sliding occurs all along the axoneme, so that the resulting bends can be propagated without damping.
9) Spaced every 86 nm along the axoneme, nexin is proposed to be part of a dynein regulatory complex.
10) The axoneme is held together by three sets of protein cross-links (see Figure 19-28a ).
11) As we will see later, the basal body plays an important role in initiating the growth of the axoneme.
12) Structure of ciliary and flagellar axonemes. (a) Cross-sectional diagram of a typical flagellum showing its major structures.
13) A "tubulin acetyltransferase" is located in the axoneme, and acetylates the α-tubulin subunit in an assembled microtubule.
14) The so-called "9+2" structure is characteristic of the core of the eukaryotic flagellum called an "axoneme".
example sentences with axoneme15) Within the axoneme, the two central singlet and nine outer doublet microtubules are continuous for the entire length of the structure.
16) Upon addition of ATP, the digested axonemes telescoped apart, but no bending was observed ( Figure 19-30 ).
17) At its point of attachment to the cell, the axoneme connects with the basal body ( Figure 19-29 ).
18) Walking of dynein arms extending from one doublet toward the (−) end of a neighboring doublet generates a sliding force in the axoneme (see Figure 19-31 ).
19) By regulating the timing and location in which dynein arms are active, the axoneme can propagate bends in both directions from base to tip.
20) As we saw earlier, flagellar and ciliary beating is characterized by the propagation of bends that originate from the base of the axoneme (see Figure 19-27 ).
21) In addition, removal of outer-arm dyneins by treatment with high-salt solutions reduces the rate of ATP hydrolysis, microtubule sliding, and beat frequency of isolated axonemes by 50 percent.
22) Once it was clear that the doublet microtubules in axonemes slide past each other, researchers sought to identify the force-generating proteins responsible for this movement.
23) Thus the forces that generate movement must reside within the axoneme and are not located in the plasma membrane or elsewhere in the cell body.
24) Although the 9 + 2 pattern is the fundamental pattern of virtually all cilia and flagella, the axonemes of certain protozoans and some insect sperm show some interesting variations.
25) This characteristic "9 + 2" arrangement of microtubules is seen when the axoneme is viewed in cross section with the electron microscope.
26) The microtubules of the flagellar axoneme lie in the normal 9+2 arrangement, orientated with the + at the anterior end and the - in the basal body.
27) The flagellar axoneme also contains radial spokes, polypeptide complexes extending from each of the outer 9 microtubule doublets towards the central pair, with the "head" of the spoke facing inwards.
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